C++ is a powerful, general-purpose programming language that is an extension of the C programming language. It was developed in the 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup and has since become widely used for a variety of applications, including systems programming, game development, high-performance computing, and more. C++ combines the features of both procedural and object-oriented programming paradigms.
Here are some key features and concepts of the C++ language:
Object-Oriented Programming (OOP): C++ supports the principles of OOP, including encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. It allows you to create classes and objects, define member variables and functions, and utilize concepts like inheritance and polymorphism to create modular and reusable code.
Standard Template Library (STL): The STL is a collection of template classes and functions that provide common data structures (such as arrays, vectors, lists, queues, stacks) and algorithms (such as sorting, searching, and manipulating collections). It simplifies and accelerates development by providing ready-to-use components.
Templates: C++ supports generic programming through templates. Templates allow you to write code that can be parameterized with different data types, enabling the creation of generic algorithms and data structures.
Exception Handling: C++ provides mechanisms for handling and propagating exceptions. This allows for the graceful handling of runtime errors and the ability to recover from exceptional conditions.
Memory Management: C++ provides manual memory management through the use of pointers and the "new" and "delete" operators. It allows precise control over memory allocation and deallocation, but it also requires careful management to avoid memory leaks and other issues.
Overloading and Operator Overloading: C++ allows you to define multiple functions with the same name but different parameter lists, enabling function overloading. It also supports operator overloading, allowing you to redefine operators such as "+", "-", "*", and "/" for your custom types.
Standard Library: C++ comes with a rich standard library that provides various utilities and functionalities, including input/output operations, string manipulation, mathematical operations, file handling, and more.
Multi-paradigm Language: C++ supports multiple programming paradigms, including procedural programming, object-oriented programming, generic programming, and functional programming (to some extent). It provides flexibility in choosing the programming style that best suits the problem at hand.
Introduction to C++:
Functions and Scope:
Object-Oriented Programming (OOP):
Pointers and References:
Standard Template Library (STL):
Advanced Concepts (optional):